Beyond socio-demographic variables, institutional and societal antecedents have grown in prominence in the Human Resource Management and Organisational Behaviour research arena. Attempts to disentangle the direct and indirect impact of institutional and cultural context, social networks, social values, and societal belief systems have demonstrated that such constructs contain strong predictive powers. Researchers shifting their attention from the technical to the institutional and social context find the latter to be one of the prime motivators of behaviour in organizations. They also recognise this context as a representation of key measures of the quality of the social fabric. What is more, there is evidence to suggest that institutional and societal benefit metrics, as part and parcel of a co-operative culture at large, serve as components of a governance paradigm that has become known as participatory governance and constitute key variables affecting the levels of effectiveness and efficiency in almost any area of public policy. The role of participative decision-making and employee voice features prominently in these endeavours.